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IC Engine Major Parts and Its Function, Materials ,Manufacturing Method



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S/NO
NAME OF THE PART
MATERIAL
FUNCTION
METHOD OF MANUFACTURING
1
Cylinder
Hard grade cast iron
Contains gas under pressure and guides the piston.
Casting
2
Cylinder Head
Cast Iron or Aluminum
Main function is to seal the working end of the cylinder and not to permit entry and exit of the gases on overhead values engines.
Casting and forging.
3
Piston
Cast iron or Aluminum
It acts as a face to receive gas pressure and transmits the trust to the connecting rod.
Casting and forging
4
Piston rings
Cast iron
Their main function is to provide a good sealing between the piston and cylinder.
Casting
5
Gudgeon pin
Hardened Steel
It supports and allows the connecting rod to swivel.
Forging.
6
Connecting Rod
Alloy steel, for small engines the material may be aluminum
It transmits the piston load to the crank , causing the later to turn, thus converting the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion of the crankshaft.
Forging.
7
Crankshaft
In generally the crankshaft is made up of high tensile forging , but special cast irons are sometimes used to produce a light weight crankshaft that does not required a lot of machining.
It converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into the rotary motion.
Forging.
8
Main Bearings
The typical bearing half is made of steel or bronze back to which a lining of relatively soft bearing material is applied.
The function of bearing is to reduce the friction and allow the parts to move easily.
Casting
9
Flywheel
Steel or cast iron
In engines it takes care of fluctuations of speed during thermodynamic cycle.
Casting
10
Inlet Values
Silicon chrome steel with about 3% of carbon.
Admits the air or mixture of air and fuel into the engine cylinder
Forging
11
Exhaust Values
Austenitic Steel
Discharges the product of combustion
Forging
12
Fly wheel
Cast Iron
A Flywheel is secured on the crankshaft. The main function of flywheel is to rotate the shaft during preparatory stroke. It is also crankshaft rotation more uniform.
Casting.
13
Spark Plug
Manufacturing Method of spark plug is little bit different from other parts of engine. Each major element of the spark plug—the center electrode, the side electrode, the insulator, and the shell—is manufactured in a continuous in-line assembly process. Then, the side electrode is attached to the shell and the center electrode is fitted inside the insulator.   
The main function of a spark plug is to conduct the high potential from the ignition system into the combustion chamber.
It provides the proper gap across which spark is produced by applying high voltage , to ignite the mixture in the ignition chamber.
Many different parts are assembled into a single unit.

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