What is Assembling Line ?
An assembly line(often called a progressive assembly) is a manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are added to a product in a sequential manner for the purpose of building a larger machine, equipment, tool, or engine, etc. with a specified function or functions.The main secret in the manufacturing process of engineering machines begins with assembling, it is such a vital aspect of the industrial activity that has the tendency of rendering a huge loss of man-hour to the industry especially when parts were produced with wrong precision.

This activity had been employed in the early centuries even before the emergence of industries, a good illustration of early industrial assembling was the making of broom for sweeping purpose from the sliced pieces of palm tree leaves mostly seen in Africa and still remain a practice that had been handed over from one generation to another in the making of local broom, meanwhile this practice started far back in the early centuries. In this 21st century, Assembling had taken a new dimension which has given rise to its complete dependent in manufacturing processes. Estimated figure, revealed that almost all the manufacturing industries undergo assembling process with the argument that the difference may just be a question of how the assembling was made, the method and techniques employed by the industries, etc.
Assembly lines are common methods of assembling complex items such as automobiles and other transportation equipment, household appliances and electronic goods.While doing Assembly in the manufacturing process consists of putting together all the component parts and subassemblies of a give[n] product. Assembly includes fastening, performing inspections and functional tests, labeling, separating good assemblies from bad, and packaging and/or preparing them for final use.

Assembly is unique compared to the methods of manufacturing such as machining, grinding, and welding in that most of these processes involve only a few disciplines and possibly only one. Most of these nonassembly operations cannot be performed without the aid of equipment, thus the development of automated methods has been necessary rather than optional. Assembly, on the other hand, may involve…one machine, many of fastening methods such as riveting, welding, screwdriving and adhesive application. Automatic parts selection, probing, gaging, functional test, labeling and packaging are also involved .

Today, using modern assembly line methods, manufacturing has become a highly refined process in which value is added to parts along the line. Increasingly, assembly line manufacturing is characterized by "concurrent processes"—multiple parallel activities that feed into a final assembly stage. These processes require sophisticated communications systems, material flow plans, and production schedules. The fact that the assembly line system is a single, large system means that failures at one point in the "line" cause slowdowns and repercussions from that point forward. Keeping the entire system running smoothly requires a great deal of coordination between the parts of the system.

Types Of Assembly Lines :-

The practice of manual assembling started the moment knowledge of technical practices was made known to make, it can be referred as the foundation of all the assembling process. A technique that thought the early scientist and engineers how to do things easily. Manual assembling has 100% human input in terms of its method of practice. The practice was made popular through its use in the production of every automobile and some industrial products.


Semi-automatic assembling came into industrial production few years after the early method of manual production. It could be noted that the early manufacturers of automobiles experienced pressures from the high demand of automobile by their customers who are willing to pay for automobiles while they are still in the production line, for such reason they sort for a quicker way of increasing the production capacity by speeding up the manufacturing and assembling process. Therefore, the invention of machines to assist in the assembling process was developed, a good example of such machine is the industrial conveyors initially made with belts and pulleys for the quick transportation of manufactured parts to the assembling lines within the industry which reduced the time and manpower for that function and helped in increasing the production rate per day. Other machines invented were packaging machines, hot material handlers mostly found in foundry industries, etc. these machines were combined with human force in achieving a higher production rate.

The passage of years has brought numerous variations in assembly line methodologies. Assembly line manufacturing is characterized by concurrent processes, or multiple parallel activities that feed into a final assembly stage. These processes require a well-planned flow of materials and the development of an advanced materials and supply infrastructure. Following are brief descriptions of assembly line methods that are currently enjoying some degree of popularity in the manufacturing world.

Just-In-Time :-
Computer power has enabled tracking systems to become more sophisticated and this, in turn, has made it possible to reduce the costs associated with holding inventories. Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing methods have been developed to reduce the cost of carrying parts and supplies as inventory. Under a JIT system, manufacturing plants carry only one or a few days' worth of inventory in the plant, relying on suppliers to provide parts and materials on an "as needed" basis. Future developments in this area may call for suppliers to establish operations within the manufacturing facility itself to provide for a more efficient supply of materials and parts.

Modular Assembly :-
This is an advanced assembly line method that is designed to improve throughput by increasing the efficiency of parallel subassembly lines feeding into the final assembly line. As applied to automobile manufacturing, modular assembly would involve assembling separate modules—chassis, interior, body on their own assembly lines, then joining them together on a final assembly line.

Team Production :-
Team-oriented production is another development in assembly line methods. Where workers used to work at one- or two-person work stations and perform repetitive tasks, now teams of workers can follow a job down the assembly line through its final quality checks. The team production approach has been hailed by supporters as one that creates greater worker involvement in the manufacturing process and knowledge of the system.

Cell Manufacturing :-
This production method has evolved out of increased ability of machines to perform multiple tasks. Cell operators can handle three or four tasks, and robots are used for such operations as materials handling and welding. Cells of machines can be run by one operator or a multi-person work cell. In these machine cells it is possible to link older machines with newer ones, thus reducing the amount of investment required for new machinery.

U-shaped assembly "line":-
A line may not be the most efficient shape in which to organize an assembly line. On a U-shaped line, or curve, workers are collected on the inside of the curve and communication is easier than along the length of a straight line. Assemblers can see each process; what is coming and how fast; and one person can perform multiple operations. Also, workstations along the "line" are able to produce multiple product designs simultaneously, making the facility as a whole more flexible. Changeovers are easier in a U-shaped line as well and, with better communication between workers, cross-training is also simplified. The benefits of the U-shaped line have served to increase their use widely.

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