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What is Manufacturing Process ? Types Of Manufacturing Processes .....


The word manufacture is derived from two Latin words, manus (hand) and factus (make) the combination means made by hand. The English word manufacture is several centuries old, and‘‘made by hand’’ accurately described the manual methods used when the word was first coined.Most modern manufacturing is accomplished by automated and computer-controlled machinery.


Manufacturing process is basically a complex activity, concerned with people who've a broad number of disciplines and expertise and a wide range of machinery, tools, and equipment with numerous levels of automation, such as computers, robots, and other equipment. Manufacturing pursuits must be receptive to several needs and developments.
There are actually multiple types of processes a manufacturer uses, and those can be grouped into four main categories: 
  1. Casting & Forging,
  2. Machining, 
  3. Joining, and 
  4. Shearing and Forming.



Casting Process :-
Casting is the process where metal is heated until molten. While in the molten or liquid state it is poured into a mold or vessel to create a desired shape. This process converts the metal into desire shape. It is useful to make complex structure.These probable used such cases like where the forging cannot be able to done , or to manufacture wide range of wear parts and components that are too large, complicated, intricate .Another advantage of castings is that machining costs can sometimes be cut down because the component can be made to certain specifications.



Forging :-
Forging is the application of thermal and mechanical energy to converting metal into desire shape by applying pressure and with or without heat.It is used in order to apply a geometric change to the material. This process of forging is mainly used in the iron and steel manufacturing industry. Forgings are famous for making some of the strongest manufactured parts as compared to the parts made by employing other techniques.Forgings are generally stronger than castings, but there are some limitations to manufacturing capabilities of forging.And also When something is forged it is physically forced into shape while remaining in a solid state – although it is frequently heated.



Machining :-
Tools used for machining are immobile power-driven units used to form or shape solid materials, specifically metals. The forming is done by removing extra materials from a work-piece. Machine tools make up the foundation of advanced industry and are utilized either indirectly or directly in the manufacturing of tool parts.
  1. They are categorized under three main categories:
  2. Traditional Chip-making tools.
  3. Presses.
  4. Modern machine tools.
Traditional chip-making tools form the work-piece by trimming away the unwanted part accessible as chips. Presses implement a several shaping processes, which includes shearing, pressing, or elongating. Non-traditional machine tools implement light, electric powered, chemical, and sonic power; superheated gas; and high-energy compound beams to form the exotic supplies and materials that have been created to meet the requirements of modern technology.



Forming :-
Metal forming is the approach of creating the metallic components by deforming the metal but not by removing, cutting, shredding or breaking any part. Bending, spinning, drawing, and stretching are a few important metal forming process in manufacturing. The metal press such as die and punching tools are implemented for this manufacturing process.



Advantages: – Same equipment can be utilized for manufacturing various components by simply changing the dies.
Disadvantages: – High apparatus and tooling expenses. – Heat treatment must be applied afterwards.



Joining Process :-
Joining processes include welding, brazing, soldering, mechanical fastening, and adhesive bonding. Mechanical fastening can be used to provide either temporary or permanent joints, while adhesive bonding, welding, brazing, and soldering processes are mainly used to provide permanent joints. Mechanical fastening and adhesive bonding usually do not cause metallurgical reactions. Consequently, these methods are often preferred when joining dissimilar combinations of materials and for joining polymer-matrix composites that are sensitive to extreme heat. Welding processes are divided into two broad classes: fusion welding and solid state welding.

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