Metal Casting Process Clearly Explained

Metal casting process begins by creating a mold, which is the ‘reverse’ shape of the part we need. Metal Casting is one of the oldest materials shaping methods known. Casting means the metal is heated in an oven until it melts, and the molten metal is pouring into a mould with a cavity of the shape to be made, and allowing it to solidify. The liquid takes the shape of cavity, which is the shape of the part.Finally, the solidified metal part is removed from the mould. When solidified, the desired metal object is taken out from the mould either by breaking the mould or taking the mould apart. The solidified object is called the casting. The process is also called foundry.

A large number of metal components in designs we use every day are made by casting. The reasons for this include: 

(a) Casting can produce very complex geometry parts with internal cavities and hollow sections. 
(b) It can be used to make small (few hundred grams) to very large size parts (thousands of kilograms) .
(c) It is economical, with very little wastage: the extra metal in each casting is re-melted and re-used (d) Cast metal is isotropic – it has the same physical/mechanical properties along any direction. 


  1. Any intricate shape can be produced.
  2. Possible to cast both ferrous and non ferrous materials
  3. Tools are very simple and expensive
  4. Useful for small lot production
  5. Weight reduction in design
  6. No directional property


  1. Accuracy and surface finish are not very good for final application
  2. Difficult to remove defects due to presence of moisture


  1. Cylindrical bocks, 
  2. Wheels, 
  3. Housings, 
  4. Pipes, bells, 
  5. Pistons, 
  6. Piston rings, 
  7. Door handles, 
  8. Locks, 
  9. The outer casing or housing for motors, 
  10. Pumps, 
  11. Machine tool beds etc.

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