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How Does The Lubrication System Works In An Engine?





Have You ever thought that, Why should we need to change the Engine Oil regularly?


You may know about maintaining your car that is you have to change the Engine lubrication oils time to time.The lubrication system is most important for Engine to work properly. It is the system by which the various rotating and sliding engine parts are lubricated to reduce the friction. Because frictional forces causes wear and tear of rubbing parts of the engine and thereby the life of the engine is reduced. So the rubbing part requires that some substance should be introduced between the rubbing surfaces in order to decrease the frictional force between them. Such substance is called lubricant.Oil travels between the various parts as it flows through engine then it forms a thin film between the rubbing surfaces. And lubricant prevents metal -to- metal contact and cleans, smooths for moving parts in an engine as they cycle thousands of times every minute. And it controls the efficient temperature in an engine.The main task of Oil is to keep the things oily so they could not get dry.So we can say “Lubrication is the admission of oil between two surface having relative motion”.


The Lubrication system contains:


1. Oiling Pump.

2. Filtration.

3. Cooling.

4 Pressure relief valve.

5.Oil Pan.

6. PickUp Tube.

7. Spurt holes and galleries.




When the Engine is not running the Oil will be stays in the Oil pan which is located on bottom of the engine and servers as reservoir for oil and also it know as Sump. When the engine is started the oil is sucked out into the pump from the sump, through strainer linked directly linked to the crankshaft, and pressure is regulated by a relief valve.Then the oil is filtered by the oil Filters, to stops any dirt and debris from the oil may have picked up on its last pass through the system and cooled by the oil cooler.The oil pump pressurizes the oil, pushing it through the cylinder head and oil galleries.

The oil which is pumped to cylinder Head ,Oil Galleries  keeping the components continuously lubricated. And lubricates the Crankshaft Journal, and is then sent through the oil paths in the connecting rod in the form of oil jets to lubricate the cylinder and piston.

The flow of oil pumped to the cylinder head is regulated by oil control orifices in the cylinder block before being fed to the cam holders and rocker arm pivots.The oil fed to the holders lubricate the camshaft journals and some of the oil ejected out in the form of jet to lubricate the cams. The oil fed to the rocker arm pivot lubricates the pivot. After all the components lubricated , the oil returns to the Oil Pan again.



The Lubrication System of I.C Engines has the following advantages:
a. It reduces wear and tear of the moving parts.
b. It damps down the vibrations of the engine.
c. It dissipates the heat generated from the moving parts due to friction.
d. It cleans the moving parts.
e. It makes the piston gas-tight.



The main function of lubricant is to :-
1. To reduce friction and wear between the parts having relative motion by minimizing the force of friction and ensures smooth running of parts.
2. To seal a space adjoining the surfaces such as piston rings and cylinder liner.
3. To clean the surface by carrying away the carbon and metal particles caused by wear.
4. To absorb shock between bearings and other parts and consequently reduce noise.
5. To cool the surfaces by carrying away heat generated due to friction.
6. It helps the piston ring to seal the gases in the cylinder.
7. It removes the heat generated due to friction and keeps the parts cool.

The various parts of an engine requiring lubrication are :-
1. Cylinder walls and pistons.
2. Main crankshaft bearings.
3. Piston rings and cylinder walls.
4. Big end bearing and crank pins.
5. Small end bearing and gudgeon pin bearings.
6. Main bearing cams and bearing valve tappet and guides
7. Timing gears etc.
8. Camshaft and cam shaft bearings.
9. Valve mechanism and rocker arms.

A good lubricant should possess the following properties:-
1. It should not change its state with change in temperature.
2. It should maintain a continuous film between the rubbing surfaces.
3. It should have high specific heat so that it can remove maximum amount of heat.
4. It should be free from corrosive acids.
5. The lubricant should be purified before it enters the engine.
6. It should be free from dust, moisture, metallic chips, etc.
7. The lubricating oil consumed is nearly 1% of fuel consumption.
8. The lubricating oil gets heated because of friction of moving parts and should be cooled before re-circulation.

The cooling water used in the engine may be used for cooling the lubricant. Nearly 2.5% of heat of fuel is dissipated as heat, which is removed by the lubricating oil.
The various lubricants used in engines are of three types:
1. Liquid Lubricants or Wet sump lubrication system.
2. Solid Lubricants or Dry sump lubrication system.

3. Semi-solid Lubricants or Mist lubrication system.

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