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Major Terms Used In Casting Process




Core :– A separate part of the mould, made of sand and generally baked, which is used to create openings and various shaped cavities in the castings.

Chaplet :– Chaplets are used to support the cores inside the mould cavity to take care of its own weight and overcome the metallostatic force.


Chill :– Metallic objects to increase cooling rate of casting

Flask :- It holds the sand mould intact. It is made up of wood for temporary application and metal for long term use. It is referred to by various names such as


* Drag :- Lower moulding flask
* Cope :–  Upper moulding flask
* Cheek :–  Intermediate moulding flask used in three piece moulding.


Pattern :- Replica of final object to be made with some modifications. Mould cavity is made with the help of pattern.

Parting line :– This is the dividing line between the two moulding flasks that makes up the mould

Facing sand :- Small amount of carboneous material sprinkled on the inner surface of the mould cavity to give better surface finish to casting.


Gate :– Actual entry point through which molten metal enters the mould cavity

Moulding sand :– Freshly prepared refractory material used for making the mould cavity. (Mixture of silica, clay & moisture)


Pouring basin :– Funnel shaped cavity on the top of the mould into which molten metal is poured


Runner :– Passage ways in the parting plane through which molten metal flow is regulated before they reach the mould cavity


Riser :– Reservoir of molten metal in the casting so that hot metal can flow back into the mould cavity when there is a reduction in volume of metal due to solidification.

Sprue :– The passage through which the molten metal, from the pouring basin, reaches the mould cavity. In many cases it controls the flow of metal into the mould.

Vent:-  Small opening in the mould to facilitate escape of air and gases.


Backing sand :– used and burnt sand

Bottom board :– The bottom board is normally made up of wood. It is used in the initial stage of the mould making.Initially, the pattern is kept on the bottom board and then sand is sprinkled on it, and finally the ramming is performed in the drag.



Chill:- Chills are metal objects which are located in the mould to raise the cooling rate of castings and provides even or desired cooling rate.

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