What is Temperature (T) ?

Temperature :

Temperature is defined as it is a physical or a thermal state of a body which distinguishes a hot body from a cold body. Temperature can mean different things in different situations. The temperature of a body is proportional to the stored molecular energy i.e., The average molecular kinetic energy of the molecules in a system. And also a particular molecule does not have a temperature, it has energy. The gas as a system has temperature. 

Since it is an average measurement, it does not depend on the number of particles in an object. In that sense it does not depend on the size of it. For example, the temperature of a small cup of boiling water is the same as the temperature of a large pot of boiling water. Even if the large pot is much bigger than the cup and has millions and millions more water molecules. 

How to Measure Temperature 

The molecules in a body are very small actually so we must choose an indirect method to measure the kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance. As heat is added to a substance, the molecules move more rapidly. This increased motion causes a small increase in the volume, or amount of space, taken up by most materials. There are Instruments for measuring Ordinary temperature are known as Thermometers and those for measuring High Temperature are known as Pyrometers.

The most commonly used scales are the Celsius scale, denoted in °C (informally, degrees centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale (°F), and the Kelvin scale. The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base units. 

It has been founded that a gas will not occupy any volume at a certain temperature. This temperature is known as Absolute zero temperature. The temperatures measured with absolute zero as basis are called absolute temperature. Absolute temperature is stated in degrees centigrade. The point of absolute temperature is found to occur at 273.15 °C below the freezing point of water. 

Then, Absolute temperature = Thermometer reading in °C + 273.15. 
Absolute temperature can also be represented in degrees kelvin, denoted by K(SI unit).

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