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How Steam Condensers Works?

Steam Condensers:









The device steam condenser is a closed vessel into which the steam is exhausted, and condensed after doing work in an engine cylinder or turbine. The main object of steam condenser is to maintain a low pressure (below the atmospheric pressure) so as to obtain the maximum possible energy from steam and thus to secure a high efficiency and to supply pure feed water to the hot well, from where it is pumped back to the boiler.

Where as the low pressure is accompanied by low temperature and thus all condensers maintain a vacuum under normal conditions. The condensed steam is called “condensate”. The temperature of condensate is higher on leaving the condenser than that of circulating water at inlet. It is thus obvious, that the condensate will have a considerable liquid heat.



The main Elements of Steam Condenser are :




  1. Condenser chamber.
  2. Cooling water supply.
  3. Wet Air pumps.
  4. Hot well.
  5. Air Extraction Pump.
  6. Condensate Extraction Pump.
  7. Boiler Feed Pump.
  8. Makeup Water Pump.


Advantages of a Condenser in Steam Power Plant :



1. The Steam condensor will increases expansion ratio of steam, and thus increases efficiency of the plant. 

2. By reducing back pressure of the steam, more work can be obtained. 
3. By reducing temperature of the exhaust steam, more work can be obtained. 
4. The sense of condensate (i.e. condensed steam) as feed for boilers reduced the cost of power generation. 
5. The temperature of condensate is higher than that of fresh water. Therefore, amount of heat supplied per kg of steam is reduced.
Types of Condensers :

The steam condensers may be mainly classified into the following two types, depending upon the way in which the steam is condensed :




1. Jet condensers or mixing types condensers and 
2. Surface condensers or non-mixing condensers. 

The important points of comparison between jet and surface condensers :





Jet condensers Surface condensers
1.In Jet condensers Cooling water and steam are mixed.

1.where as in these condensers Cooling water and steam are not mixed up.
2. It not well suitable for high capacity plants. 2. It is easily suits for high capacity plants.
3. Condensate is wasted. 3. Condensate is reused.
4. In these condenser the process is used sufficient boiler feed water is available. 4. Where as in these process sufficient boiler feed water is not available and the condensed steam is reused as boiler feed water.
5. The condensing plant is economical and simple. 5. The condensing plant is costly and complicated.
6.These process is very cheaper. 6.These process is very costlier.
7. More power is required for air pump. 7. Less power is required for air pump.
8. High power is required for water pumping. 8. Less power is required for water pumping.








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